Case Study:

Eve is a 60-year-old woman, originally from Croatia. She arrived in Australia when she was in her 20’s – with her husband and a toddler – to seek a better life. The family settled in Sydney’s southwest where there were other migrants from their country. Both Eve and her husband found work relatively quickly – Eve in a local café, and her husband in a factory. Neither knew much English prior to arriving in Australia, and the imperative to find work prevented them from enrolling in English classes. They relied on their Croatian-speaking neighbours to help them get settled and to get their child started in school.

 

Although Eve’s lack of English skills initially presented some challenges at work, her hardworking, warm and friendly demeanour proved to be an attraction for customers from the local area, making her a valued employee. Some of them were very regular customers who lived alone and liked talking to Eve; Eve always thought they were lonely people who needed a good listener.

At first Eve couldn’t fully understand everything that such customers were telling her because of unfamiliar words and contexts of the topics so she would just nod and respond in gesture and facial expressions; this did not seem to worry these customers. Over time, however, Eve found herself giving them advice or providing reassurances on matters that appeared to be concerning them.

 

Many talked about Eve being their ‘counsellor’ or ‘therapist’.

Eve’s family spoke Croatian at home, but as her son grew older and started bringing his friends home, she started to pick up some English expressions and words from them too. Eve’s husband, who worked in a noisy factory which employed mainly migrants from Croatia and other parts of Eastern Europe, had a few Croatian-speaking friends, and never learned much English at all. He continued to speak Croatian at home and ignored Eve and their son when they mixed some English expressions or words in their conversations at home. 

 

Now in her early 60’s, Eve has stopped working at the café. She felt her body could no longer cope with the demand of long hours on her feet. With some financial help from their son, both Eve and her husband have now retired.

 

Eve is now thinking of studying and gaining a qualification; after years of her customers saying how much she had helped them during troubling periods in their lives, she feels she could make a contribution to society by qualifying to be a counsellor. She is quite confident, given that she performed well academically in school (though she had to leave school before finishing year 10), and she has been working successfully in an English-speaking workplace for over four decades. She has asked her son to help her find out about relevant courses in the local TAFE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment criteria:

Your work will be assessed according to the following criteria:

·         Explains key concepts relating to language development, drawing on theories from required subject readings 

·         Analyses linguistic, psychological and social dimensions of learning using ideas from required subject readings

·         Relates theory to classroom practice 

·         Produces accurate and cohesive written English, with correct citation and referencing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 1) Linguistic factors

Identify what are some key Similarities & differences between language 1 and language 2 (L1 & L2) that may affect the learner in their language learning: e.g.

·         grammar,

·         lexis,

·         phonology,

·         paralinguistic & pragmatic features

 

Features related to the intended use of the L2

Mention relevant theoretical concepts.

Which ones are most relevant to your learner? Can we expect differences between L1 and L2 to make a big difference for this learner, or not—why?

Use the Ethnologue website  https://www.ethnologue.com/ and or Sawn & Smith (2001) Learner English.

 

Relevant Readings:

Sawn & Smith (2001) Learner English

 

Lightbown, P.M., & Spada, N. (2013). Explaining second language learning (Chapter 4). (pp. 103-108; 113-121)

 

Gass, S. (2000). Fundamentals of second language acquisition.

 

 Gass, S. (2013). Interlanguage in context (Chapter 11).

 

McGregor, W.B. 2009, Linguistics: an introduction, Continuum, London, pp. 310-318.

 

Conteh, J. (2015). 2.2 Cummin’s theories: CUP, language interdependence, BIC/ CALP (extract).

 

Cummins, J. (2008). BICS and CALP: Empirical and theoretical status of the distinction.

 

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Second language acquisition and applied linguistics. Annual review of applied linguistics, 20, 165-181.

 

Understanding Second language acquisition/ Lourdes Ortega: Hodder Education, 2009

 

 

 

Task 2) Psychological factors

e.g.

         Age

         Motivation

         Personality

         Intelligence/ ability

 

Mention relevant theoretical concepts

The psychological factors that are most salient and relevant to the case study. Use taxonomies to examine what kind of a language user / learning the case study learner is. What is their goal / purpose for learning English?

Which ones are most salient and relevant for this learner? Why?

 

Relevant Readings:

Cook, V. (2014). What are the goals of language teaching?   (Chapter 8)

 

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). Individual Differences In Second Language Learning (Chapter 3).

 

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). Explaining Second Language Learning (Chapter 4).

 

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2007). Reflecting on the cognitive-social debate in second language acquisition.

 

Lantolf, J.P., & Thorne, S.L. (2007). Sociocultural theory and second language learning

 

Swain, M. (1985). Three functions of output in second language learning.

 

Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. Routledge.

 

Ushioda – Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 3) Social factors

e.g.

         Family/ peers and wider societal views about multilingualism & language learning

         Language learning and use in:

 – the learning environment

 – the social environment

 

Mention relevant theoretical concepts

The social factors that are most salient and relevant to the case study. Use some of the concepts of bilingual and multi-lingualism to consider what kind of multi-lingual learner case study learner is.

 

Relevant Readings:

Baker, C. (2006). Bilingualism: Definitions and Distinctions (Chapter 1).

 

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). Individual Differences In Second Language Learning (Chapter 3).

 

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). Explaining Second Language Learning (Chapter 4).

 

Mitchell, R., Myles, F., & Marsden, E. (2013). Sociocultural perspectives on second language learning (chapter 8).

 

Lantolf, J.P., & Thorne, S.L. (2007). Sociocultural theory and second language learning

 

Garcia, O. (2014). Becoming bilingual and biliterate: sociolinguistic and sociopolitical considerations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 4) Implications for language teaching and learning

Related theory to classroom practice.

Mention relevant theoretical concepts

 

Relevant Readings:

Swain, M., & Watanabe, Y. (2013). Languaging: Collaborative dialogue as a source of second language learning.

 

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). Observing Learning and Teaching in the Second Language Classroom (Chapter 5).

 

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2013). Second Language Learning In The Classroom (Chapter 6).

 

The Douglas Fir Group. (2016). A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world.

 

Leung, C. (2007). Integrating school-aged ESL learners into the mainstream curriculum.

 

Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching?

 

Wigglesworth, G. (2005). Research in use of L1 in adult learning settings.

 

Brown: Styles and Strategies

 

Cummins, J. (2008). BICS and CALP: Empirical and theoretical status of the distinction.

 

Conteh, J. (2015). 2.2 Cummin’s theories: CUP, language interdependence, BIC/ CALP (extract).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Important Information

 

Word count: 2000 words

The word count excludes appendices and references. No more than 5% of work can be quoted material.

 Referencing your sources:

 In-text citations and the reference list must follow the APA style, and all in-text citations must include the page number(s) (or location number(s) in the case of Kindle texts) when quoting directly and when paraphrasing an idea from the text.

 

In- text citation Demo

 

Example:

The involvement in cultural practices also influences the changes that occur in the communities across generations. Children often learn to speak of what they see, and the actions of people are primarily influenced by a culture of the society (Rogoff, 2003, p. 50).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Report Style Demo

 

Structure of introduction

Example:

Carlos is a 25 year old Chilean immigrant … He learned English in the Intensive English Centre … he currently intends to study in Science at university. The following report investigates … and then proposes implications …

Consider what information you need from your case study to organise your introduction, and what information you need to explain about the task and your overall analysis. Filling in the below will give you the basics you need. Draw together relevant information from the case study with relevant information from subject readings to build your analysis.

Describe some key features of your learner—use some descriptive categories you will come back to in the report:

[………….] is…

 

Their language learning experience is …

 

Their goal is …

 

Describe what you will do in the assignment, remembering what the criteria of the report is and showing the reader how your text will proceed:

This report will …

 

 

Task 1: Structuring sections: Similarities and differences between L1 and L2

Start with an overall, introductory statement to this section (you can write this last):

Consider these differences—remember, some may be more important than others for your learner. Draw together relevant information from the case study with relevant readings to build your analysis:

Grammar:

Source(s) for this:

 

Lexis:

Source(s) for this:

Phonology:

Source(s) for this:  

 

Paralinguistic/pragmatic features:

Source(s) for this:  

Which ones are most relevant to your learner? Can we expect differences between L1 and L2 to make a big difference for this learner, or not—why?

Remember to conclude the section, summarising your analysis:

Task 2: Structuring sections: Psychological factors

Start with an overall, introductory statement to this ‘opens up’ the discussion about your learner (you can write this last):

 

Consider factors such as these—remember, some may be more important than others. Use relevant information from your case study linked to relevant subject readings:

Age:

Source for this:

 

Motivation:

Source for this:

 

Personality:

Source for this:

 

Intelligence/ability

Source for this:

 

Which ones are most salient and relevant for this learner? Why?

 

Remember to conclude the section, summarising your analysis:             

Task 3: Social factors

Start with an overall, introductory statement to this section (you can write this last):

 

 

Consider factors such as these—remember, some may be more important than others. Use relevant information from your case study linked to relevant subject readings:

 

Family/peers and wider societal views about multilingualism and language learning:

 

 

Source(s) for this:

 

 

Language learning and use in:

 

         The learning environment

 

 

 

 

         The social environment

 

 

 

Which ones are most salient and relevant for this learner? Why?

 

Remember to conclude the section, summarising your analysis:             

 

 

Task 4) Implications for language teaching and learning

Example:

As discussed previously, despite positive attitudes and strong motivation … Carlos’ motivation and learning outcomes may be affected … If the teachers can use “motivational strategies” (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, as cited in Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 89) in their teaching practices, he may become more motivated and engaged in the learning process. In addition … In this way, Carlos is more likely to make progress…

The sociocultural model of learning may be more suitable for Carlos to meet the linguistic challenge in the subjects of science. According to Lemke (1990, p. 153), …

Through such “collaborative dialogue” (Swain, as cited in Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 119), Carlos can …

Consider how you will link your analysis of linguistic factors, psychological factors, and social factors into teaching and learning implications. Don’t introduce new analysis of those factors, work with what you have done to suggest some teaching and learning recommendations using relevant subject readings.

Ø How could my learner benefit linguistically from a particular approach/model?

Ø How could my learner benefit psychologically from a particular approach/model?

Ø How could my learner benefit socially from a particular approach/model?

Which is most important? What models/ideas of language learning and development seem most suitable for the overall needs of my learner?

 

Sources for this:

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analyses linguistic, psychological and social dimensions of learning using ideas from required subject readings
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