Here are the instructions from the professor for the replies:


Replies: In your replies, discuss the failure of religion to correct the damage to the Bodies Politic in 2 of your classmates’ threads.


Post replies of 200–250 words each to 2 other classmates’ threads. In each reply, include at least 1 reference to the course readings and at least 1 Scripture reference. Threads and replies must be in current Turabian format. Each reply post must be unique; merely posting the same reply in two places is not sufficient and may be treated as a form of academic misconduct.


Replies are to be written as if you are speaking to the person who wrote the thread.


Course Reading Source:


Ryan, Alan. On Politics: A History of Political Thought: From Herodotus to the Present. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2012. ISBN: 9780871404657.



Please write a 200-250-word personal reply to James thread (1 of 2):



Good evening all,

This week’s assignment takes us into the Body Politic that created Fascism and Communism. Fascism and Communism removes Christianity and replaces it with totalitarianism. Many sociologists defined totalitarianism as the “irruptions of the irrational into political life that have periodically been unleashed by rapid social change” [1]. This was brought on by several factors, the horrors of WWI, the fast-growing industrialization in Europe, the creation of new states at the conclusion of WWI [2]. When Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles it effectively was stripped of 25,000 acres of land and lost roughly 7 million people. Totalitarian for the Fascist state required total loyalty to one’s country as well as hostility towards the separation of public and private attachments [3]. This fanaticism created a group of individuals who divided the world into friends and enemies decided by the dictator Mussolini.

In Germany, the face of Fascism was a little different as Hitler added hatred of the Jews and racism to the mix. Hitler and his Nazi regime managed to exterminate over six-million Jews and was after the total elimination of Judaism. Hitler also felt the need to fight both external and internal enemies of the state [4]. Racism helped fuel the ideology of ultra-nationalism which created several organizations within the Nazi party such as the Brownshirts who helped bring Hitler to power after which he created the SA and SS.

Totalitarianism was not only prevalent in Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy but it was also alive and well in the Soviet Union which espoused Marxism. These three nations utilized a strategy of terror, and restructuring of governmental institutions in order to gain compliance. They were able to mobilize mass members of the populace through the reigning political party, the cult of leadership, the abolition of state and private organizations, use of violence and terror against everyone at will, the abolition of privacy of the family [5]. According to Karl Schmitt, Italian Fascism, German Nazism and Stalinist Communism all divided the world into friends and enemies and was the essence of the political, but Nazism was unintellectual and anti-Semitic [6].

According to Phillip Fascism, Nazism and Socialism are all forms of communism rooted in Marxism. “The idea was that a communist regime would use the absolute power of the socialist dictatorship of the proletariat to destroy all values, all RELIGION, all institutions, and all traditions which would theoretically lead to the communists’ utopia” [7].

All three of these regimes dismantled and replaced existing governmental agencies for their own, ruled by fear and violence and dismantled Christianity and attempted to eradicate Judaism. The Christian Body politic suffered greatly under these regimes. Christianity which had been pushed into the private sphere had now been pushed underground again with race, blood, and nation as the new emotional ties that gave people hope instead of the Gospel [8].


Even though Hitler attempted to eradicate the Jews from the earth he failed. This was not the first time that the Jewish people had suffered such atrocities. In the book of Esther Chapter 3 King Ahasuerus attempted the same thing. Verse 13 states And the letters were sent by posts into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.” One thing Hitler failed to realize in his demented state was that God is supreme and reigns over all of the heaven and earth Mathew 11:25 states “At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes” (KJV).


[1]Ryan, Alan. (2012). On Politics. Liveright Publishing. New York, NY p -913

[2] Ibid, p – 913

[3] Ibid, p – 913

[4] Ibid, p -914

[5] Ibid, p – 915

[6] Ibid, p – 940

[7] Phillip, Joshua. (2018) Nazism, Fascism, and Socialism Are All Rooted Communism. Last accessed on 6/26/18

[8] Chupp, lecture notes


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Please write a 200-250-word personal reply to Josiah thread (2 of 2):


The shift toward the development of the Modern Body Politic began with the ideas of philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Prior to Hegel (1770-1831), other bodies politic were oriented toward aiding in the progression of society through some degree of synthesizing religious and political institutions. When this goal was abandoned by the Early Modern Body Politic, the vacuum that resulted from the forsaking of recognizing the influence of religious institutions was filled by Hegel’s proposal of progressive realization vaguely referred to as the “Spirit.”[1] Through Hegel’s writings, such as his popular Elements of the Philosophy of the Right (1821), he developed this idea of the Spirit as a linear historical progress detailing the development of sequences of epochs.[2] Hegel’s substitution of the Christian doctrine that had previously dominated the various body politics with the phases of the Spirit’s development served as the precursor to the development of Communist under the influence of Karl Marx and Fascism under the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche.

From Hegel’s idea of the Spirit, the first passionately atheist political philosopher Karl Marx formulated his theory for achieving a Communist utopia through a materialistic interpretation of history. Though Marx did not approve of Hegel’s work at first, it was Hegel’s “grotesque and rocky melody” style of writing that convinced Marx of the Hegelian idea of alienation.[3] Marx transformed Hegel’s theory to be understood as estrangement or alienation being the result of simply producing goods to earn money (Ryan 2012, 778). The degree of estrangement increases as the worker becomes increasingly productive and creates greater wealth for his or her employer. According to the philosophy of Marxism, workers are not considered free unless they are completely free from the impersonal forces of the market (Ryan 2012, 779). States that have attempted to become a workers’ paradise as envisioned by Marx have ended as complete disasters. Under a body politic dominated by Communism, the economic planners cannot possible coordinate and direct production to meet the urgent needs of consumers because all factors of production are government-owned and there are thus no market prices. This inevitably leads to the disastrous result of a shortage of resources, which could lead to the starvation of vast numbers of people.

German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche advanced far beyond Hegel or Marx in his radicalism by attacking morality and institutions of government, which had powerful political implications throughout the 20th century.[4] By removing every last vestige of religious influence from the body politic, totalitarian aspirations of fascism were allowed to take root and thrive. Religion no longer provided people with purpose; the state provided people with purpose, primarily by valuing blood, race, and nation above anything else.[5] Hitler’s Nazism and Mussolini’s Fascism were direct results of this philosophy, as Marxism and Leninism were direct results of Karl Marx’s philosophy. Clearly, once religious influence, specifically the Gospel, was deemphasized or removed entirely from playing a role in body politic, the diseases of Communism and Fascism filled the God-shaped vacuum alluded to by Jesus in Matthew 4:10.

[1] Chupp, Jesse. 2018. “Module/Week 6 Lecture Notes.” Liberty University Online.

[2] Redding, Paul. “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 August, 2015. Accessed June 27, 2018.

[3] Marx, letter to his father, November 10, 1837, in Selected Writings, p. 12.


Ryan, Alan. On Politics: A History of Political Thought: From Herodotus to the Present (2 Vol. Set) (p. 1023). Liveright. Kindle Edition.

[4] Leiter, Brian. “Nietzsche’s Moral and Political Philosophy.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. August 26, 2004. Accessed June 27, 2018.

[5] GOLOMB, JACOB, and ROBERT S. WISTRICH, eds. Nietzsche, Godfather of Fascism?: On the Uses and Abuses of a Philosophy. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press, 2002.



This week’s assignment takes us into the Body Politic that created Fascism and Communism. Fascism and Communism removes Christianity and replaces it with totalitarianism
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