T​‌‌‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‍‍​he question the student responded is “Interpret the CIs in the article you posted. Are the CIs calculated around means, mean differences, percentages, odds ratios, or another parameter? What do the CIs tell us about the research questions(s) or research hypothesis(es)?” Please respond to the below student response to the above question in a one full page plus two peer-reviewed references: Suzuki et al. (2015) explored how mental illness impacted the workplace in Japan. Nearly 65% of all long-term absences from work are related to mental illnesses in Japan, and the amount of mental health-related absences has been growing globally. While absenteeism is a challenge for employers, that is the time when an employee is not at work, there is growing awareness of the impact of presenteeism, when an employee is at work but they are not fully productive due to health issues (Kessler et al., 2003). The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ), the same tool used for the upcoming ARP, was used to measure presenteeism (Kessler et al., 2003). The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to report results (Suzuki et al., 2015). The 95% CI did not include 1 in the reported results, and thus the findings were significant. For example, individuals with depression at baseline were at higher risk for ​‌‌‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‍‍​absences (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.61-11.48). At one year, there was a significant association between relative presenteeism and increased depression (OR=3.79, 95% CI: 2.48-5.81). Suzuki et al. (2015) were able to accept their hypothesis that presenteeism is related to increased depression. The confidence interval is a range of values that is thought to include the true value. The odds ratio shows that there is an associated difference in the variables compared so long as it is not 1.0. In this study, the OR were greater than one, indicating a difference. Because the confidence intervals reported do not include 1.0, the researchers were able to accept their hypothesis that there was a difference of statistical significance between the two groups in question. Reference Kessler, R. C., Barber, C., Beck, A., Berglund, P., Cleary, P. D., McKenas, D., … Wang, P. (2003). The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45(2), 156–174. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000052967.43131.51 Suzuki, T., Miyaki, K., Song, Y., Tsutsumi, A., Kawakami, N., Shimazu, A., … & Kurioka, S. (2015). Relationship between sickness presenteeism (WHO-HPQ) with depression and sickness absence due to mental disease in a cohort of Japanese workers. Journal of affective disorders, 180​‌‌‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‍‍​, 14.

What do the CIs tell us about the research questions(s) or research hypothesis(es)
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